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Important Facts of Magnetism Notes 2021: Download Study Materials BOOK PDF

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S.NoProperties Of Magnetism
1Magnets attract objects of iron, cobalt and nickel. 
2The force of attraction of a magnet is greater at its poles than in the middle. 
3Like poles of two magnets repel each other. 
4Opposite poles of two magnets attracts each other. 
5If a bar magnet is suspended by a thread and if it is free to rotate, its South Pole will move towards the North Pole of the earth and vice versa.
Magnetic SubstanceDefinitionExampleMagneic FieldTemperaure
ParamagnetFeebly magnetised in the direction of the magnetic field when placed in the strong magnetic field.Aluminium, Platinum, salts of ironStrongIncrease
DiamagnetFeebly magnetised in the oppositedirection of the magnetic field when placed in the strong magnetic field.Gold, Silver, Zinc, copperWeakNo Change
FerromagnetSubstances which are strongly magnetised in he diection of the magnetic field when placed in itIron,nickel, cobaltStrongIncrease

Important Terms In Magnetism & Definitions:

Important WordsDefinitions
Magnetism it is a property of certain substances which pull closer or repel other objects.
Magnetic fieldsMagnetic fields  are produced by electric currents, which can be macroscopic currents in wires, or microscopic currents associated with electrons in atomic orbits. 
ElectromagnetismAn interaction between electricity and magnetism, as when an electric current or a changing electric field generates a magnetic field, or when a changing magnetic field generates an electric field.
Magnetic EnergyThe potential  energy  of a  magnet  of  magnetic  moment, m, in a  magnetic  field, B, is defined as the mechanical work of  magnetic  force on re-alignment of the vector of the  Magnetic  dipole moment, and is equal
ElectroMagnetAn  electromagnet  is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets  usually consist of wire wound into a coil.
Magnetic Fluxmagnetic flux  in an area taken perpendicular to the  magnetic flux's  direction. 
Magnetic flux densityMagnetic flux density  is defined as the amount of  magnetic flux  in an area taken perpendicular to the  magnetic flux's  direction
Flux densityF lux density  is a  measure  of the force applied to a particle by the magnetic field.
Electric Flux DensityA measure of the intensity of an electric  field generated by a free  electric  charge, corresponding to the number of electric  field lines passing through a given area.
Magnetic Field StrengthThe amount of magnetizing force (how much force it has to magnetize, magnetic materials such as iron, steel, etc) is called Magnetic field strength which is denoted by (H).

Types of Magnetism:

S.NoTypes Of MagnetsExamplesExplanation
1TemporaryIron alloyIt can be easily magnetized by even a weak magnetic field. 
2PermanentA Horseshoe magnet, a refrigerator magnet, a freezer sealOnce they are magnetized, these objects do not easily lose their magnetism
3Electromagnetshard disk drives, speakers, motors,  and  generatorsThese are used when a very strong magnet is necessary.The Core act as a strong magnetic field

Magnetic Field & Range:

Typical magnetic fieldsTesla Range
Inside Atomic Nuclei10 11  T
Superconducting Solenoids20 T
Superconducting Coil Cyclotron5 T
Small Ceramic Magnet0.1 T
Earth's field at the equator4(10 −5 ) T
Interstellar Space2(10 −10 ) T

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