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Subaltern Movements of Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries Notes 2021 Download Study Materials BOOK PDF

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TABLE 3.1 Tribal Movements in Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Name of the MovementArea AffectedYearLeader(s)Course of the Movement and Consequence
ChuarsNanbhum and Barabhum (West Bengal)1768, 1832 Not availableDefiance of the British authority by Chuars; suppression of the revolt by the British through use of force as well as conciliatory measures
BhilsKhandesh (Maharashtra)1818, 1848Not availableBeginning of revolt of Bhils with the British occupation of khandesh and their defiance of the British for 30 years; final suppression through military operations combined with conciliatory measures
HosSinghbhum and Chota Nagpur1820, 1822, 1832Not availableOccupation of Singbhum by the British and revolt of the Hos, its suppression after extensive military operations; their revolt again in 1832
KolisSahyadri Hills (Gujarat and Maharashtra)1824, 1828, 1839, and 1844-1848Not availableRepeated revolts of kolis and their final suppression after the capture of all their leaders
KhasisKhasi Hills (Assam and Meghalaya)1829-1832Tirut Singh and Bar Manik (Chiefs of Nounklow and Molim, respectively)Unsuccessful attempts of the khasis to drive away the British from their territory
SingphosAssam1830-1839Not availableSuppression of 1830 revolt by Captain Neufville; murder of Colonel While (British political Agent of Assam) by Singhphos in 1839 but ultimately defeated by the British
KolsChota Nagpur (Jharkand)1831-1832Buddoo BhagatSuppression of the revolt after extensive military operations by the British and death
KoyasRampa Region (Chodavarn in Andra Pradesh)1840, 1845, 1848, 1861-1862, 1879-1880Alluri SitaramarajuRepeated revolts of the koyas the major ones being the 1879-1880 and 1922-1924 revolts; capture and execution of Raju by the British in May 1924
KhondsKhondmals (Orissa)1846-1848Chakra BisayiThe first two revolts led by Bisayi were suppressed with great difficulty by the British
SanthalsRajmahal Hills (Bihar)1855-1856Sidhu and KanhuRevolt of Santhals and establishment of their own government (July 1855); defeat of the British under Major Burrough by Santhals transfer of the disturbed area to the military and final suppression of the revolt by the end of 1856: creation of separate district of Santhal Paragans to preventSanthals from revolting again in future
NaikdasPanch Mahals (Gujarat)1858-1859, 1868Rupsing and Joria BhagatRevolt of Naikdas under Rupsingh in 1858 and conclusion of peace between the British and Rupsing in 1859; their revolt again in 1868 and establishment of a kingdom with Joria as the spiritual head and Rupsing as temporal head; suppression of the revolt after the capture and execution of Rupsing and Joria
Kacha Nagas MundasCacher (Assam) Chota Nagpur1882, 1899-1900Sambhudan Birsa MundaFoundation of a new religious sect by Birsa, with Singh Bonga as the only true God. The British fears over Birsa’s preachings among Mundas and arrest and imprisonment of Birsa. Release of Birsa and revival of his doctrine; revolt of Mundas and their attack on churches and police stations (1899); defeat of Mundas by the British (jan 1900), and capture of Birsa (he died of cholera in jail in June 1900)
BhilsBanswara and Dungapur (southern Rajasthan)Govind GuruIt began as a purification movement but later developed into a political movement; failure of their attempts to set up a Bhil Raj due to British armed intervention
OraonsChotanagpur1913Jatra Bhagat
Thadoe KukisManipur1914-1718Jadonang and Rani Gaidinliu 1917-1719

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TABLE 3.2Caste and Peasant Movements

Nair Movement1891-1919TravancoreC. V. Raman Pillai and K. Ramakrishna Pillai
Nadar Movement1910Tamil Nadu
Justice Movement1915-1916Sounth IndiaC. N. Mudaliyar, T. M. Nair and P. T. Chetti
Self Respect Movement1925Tamil NaduE. V. Ramaswami Naicker (Periya)
Ezhava Movement1928KeralaNanu Asan (Narayan Guru)
Satyashodhak Movement1872MaharashtraJyotiba Phule
Mahar Movement1920MaharashtraB. R. Amberkar
Kaivartas1897Midnapur (Bengal)NA
Namshudras1901Faridpur (Bengal0NA
Indigo Movement1859-1860BengalDina Bandhu Mitra
Pabna Movement1872-1885East BengalKeshab Chandra Roy and Sambhunath Pal
Deccan Riots1875Maharashtra
Punjab Peasant Movement1890-1900Punjab
Champaran Movement1917BiharGandhi, Rajendra Prasad, A. N. Sinha, J. B. Kriplani, Mazhar-ul Haq and Mahadev Desai

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Name the MovementArea affectedYearLeader(s)Main Cause(s)Course of the Movement and Consequence
Revot of KattabommanTirunelveli1792-1799Veerapandya Kattabomman (Ruler of Panchalakurichi)Attempts of the British to force Kattabomman to accept their suzerainty and his refusal. British occupation of Orissa. (1803); resentment of, thePaiks (a militia class occupying rent-free lands ‘under the zamindars) against British land and land revenue policiesDefiance of the British by Kattabomman for 7 years; his final capture and execution by the British (1799); annexation of his territory by the British (1799)
Rebellion of the PaiksOrissa1804-1806First under the Raja of Khurda and later under JagabandhuThe British occupation of Orissa (1803); resentment of the Paiks (a militia class occupying rent-free lands under the zamindars) against the British land revenue policiesUnsuccessful attempt of the Raja of Khudra to organise a rebellion with the help of the Paiks and confiscation of his territory by the British (1804); continuous unrest among the Paiks between 1804 and 1806; rise of the Paiks under Jaga-bandhu and their occupation of puri after defeating the British force (1817); final suppression of the movement by force and conciliatory measure by the British
Revolt of velu ThambiTravancore1808-1809Velu Thambi (Diwan of Travancore)Financial burden imposed on the state by the British through the subsidiary system; the high handedness of the British resident there and the British demand for the removal of DewanBeginning of the war between the two sides (December 1808); fall of Trivandrum (capital of Travancore) to the British (February 1809); death of Velu Thambi in forest due to serious injuries
Revolt of Rao BharmalKutch and Kathiawar1861-1819Rao Bharmal (ruler of Kutch)Anti-British feeling due to the British expansionist – policy and their interference in internal affairs of KutchFinal defeat and deposal of Rao Bharmal; imposition of Subsidiary Treaty on Kutch
Revolt of RamosisPoona1822-1829Chittur Singh and UmajiThe British annexation of Peshwa’s territory (1818), resulting in large-scale unemployment among Ramosis (under the Peshwa, they served in lower ranks of police)Revolt of the Ramosis under Chittur Singh (1822-24); establishment of peace by the British by pardoning all the crimes of the Ramosis and granting them lands and recruiting them as hill police
Kittur RisingKittur (near Dharwar in Karnataka)1824-1829Channamma and RayappaDeath of Shjivalinga Rudra Desai (chief) of Kittur (1824), leaving no male to recognize the adopted issue; refusal of the British to accept the son as the Desai and assumption of administration of Kittur by the BritishRevolt of channamrna (widow of late Desai) in 1824 and murder of the English officers including Thackeray (collector of Dharwar); conquest of Kittur and its annexation by the British. Revolt of the people of Kittur under Rayappa who declared independence set up the adopted boy as the Desai (1829); capture and execution of Rayappa by the British and death of Channamma in Dharwar prison.
Sambalpur OutbreaksSambalpur (Orissa)1827-1840Surendra SaiFrequent interference of the British in the internal affairs of Sambalpur. such as the issue of successionDeath of Maharaja Sai (ruler) and outbreak of civil war, succession of Mohan Kumari (widow of the late Raja) with die support of the British and revolt of other claimants under Surcndra Sai; final imprisonment of Surendra Sai by British (1840)
Satara DisturbancesSatar (Maharashtra)1840-1841Dhar Rao Pawar and Narsing Dattatreya PatkarDeposal and banishment of Praiap Singh, the popular ruler of Satara by the BritishRevolt of the people of Satara under Dhar Rao in 1840, their revolt under Narsing and seizure of Badami in 1841; defeat and capture of Narsing by the British (he was transported for life)
Bundela revoltSagar and Damoh (Bundelkhand)1842Madhukar Sha and Jawahir SinghResentment against the Brftish land revenue policyRevolt of the Bundelas under Shah and Singh; murder of police officers and disruption of the British administration; capture and execution of Madhukar Shah and Singh by the British
Gadkari rebellionKolhapur (Maharashtra)1844-1845Not availableAssumption of direct administration of kolhapur by British and reforms of D. K. Pandit, resentment of the Gadkaris (a militia class who had earlier held revenue-free lands in return for their services to the ruler) against the revenue reformsRevolt of the Gadkaris followed by a popular revolt in the city of kolhapur and all other parts of the state of kolhapur; final suppression of the movement by the British
Satavandi RevoltSatavandi (Maharashtra)1839-1845Phond Savant (leading noble and Anna Sahib) (heir apparent)Deposal of Khen Savant (ruler of satavancli) and appointment of a British officer to administer the state; resentment of the people against the British system of administration
Raju rebellionVisakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)1827-1833Birabhadra RajuBirabhadra was disposed of his estate by the British in return for a small amount of pensionRevolt of Birabhadra and his defiance of the British authority till he was captured
Palakonda OutbreakPalakonda (Andhra Pradesh)1831-1832Zamindar of PalakondaAttachment of the property of zamindar for non-payment of revenue as he failed to clear the arrears of revenues to the BritishRevolt of the zamindar, suppression of the revolt and forfeiture of Palakonda estate to the British
Parlakimedi OutbreakParlakimedi (Orissa)1829-1835Jagannath Gajapti Narayan RaoAttachment of his zamindari for failure to clear the arrears by the British in 1827Revolt of the zamindar, appointment of Mr Russel as the commissioner, final suppression of the movement after large-scale military campaign in 1837 Revolt of the zamindar followed by a popular rising of the people; final suppression of the movement

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