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 Here, we have provided the links containing the study materials, which will help you study and prepare for your BTech Software Testing Methodologies 2020 edition examinations. Referring to the connections we’ve provided below and the links containing the study materials in PDF format, and the list of recommended books that we’ve provided below, you will be able to ace your examinations. We have also provided you with further details that will allow you to do well in your exams and learn more. These study materials help you understand the concepts and everything quickly and creates a better space for you to work on. These study materials give you the best resources to study from.

Study Materials for BTech Software Testing Methodologies

Software testing methodologies by Boris beizer pdfDownload
Software testing methodologies Aditya engineering collegeDownload
Software testing methodologies pptDownload
Software testing methodologies Question PaperDownload
Software Testing Methodologies Notes PdfDownload

Recommended Books

  • Introduction to Software Testing, P.Ammann&J.Offutt, Cambridge Univ.Press.
  • Effective methods of Software Testing, Perry, John Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1999.
  •  Software Testing Concepts and Tools, P.NageswaraRao, dreamtech Press
  • Win Runner in simple steps by Hakeem Shittu, 2007 Genixpress.
  • Foundations of Software Testing, D.Graham& Others, Cengage Learning
  • Software Testing- Yogesh Singh, Camebridge
  •  The Craft of software testing – Brian Marick, Pearson Education.
  • Software Testing, 3rd edition, P.C. Jorgensen, Aurbach Publications ( SPD).
  • Software Testing, N.Chauhan, Oxford University Press.
  • Software testing techniques – Boris Beizer, Dreamtech, second edition.



Introduction: Purpose of Testing, Dichotomies, Model for Testing, Consequences of Bugs, Taxonomy of Bugs. Flow graphs and Path testing: Basics Concepts of Path Testing, Predicates, Path Predicates and Achievable Paths, Path Sensitizing, Path Instrumentation, Application of Path Testing.


Transaction Flow Testing: Transaction Flows, Transaction Flow Testing Techniques. Data flow testing: Basics of Dataflow Testing, Strategies in Dataflow Testing, Application of Dataflow Testing.


Domain Testing: Domains and Paths, Nice & Ugly Domains, Domain testing, Domains, and Interfaces Testing, Domain and Interface Testing, Domains and Testability. Paths, Path products, and Regular expressions: Path Products & Path Expression, Reduction Procedure, Applications, Regular Expressions & Flow Anomaly Detection.


Syntax Testing: Why What and How, A Grammar for formats, Test Case Generation, Implementation and Application and Testability Tips. Logic-Based Testing: Overview, Decision Tables, Path Expressions, KV Charts, and Specifications.


State, State Graphs, and Transition Testing: State Graphs, Good & Bad State Graphs, State Testing, and Testability Tips. Graph Matrices and Application:-Motivational overview, matrix of graph, relations, power of a matrix, node reduction algorithm.


Software Testing Tools: Introduction to Testing, Automated Testing, Concepts of Test Automation, Introduction to list of tools like Win runner, Load Runner, JMeter, About Win Runner ,Using Win runner, Mapping the GUI, Recording Test, Working with Test, Enhancing Test, Checkpoints, Test Script Language, Putting it all together, Running and Debugging Tests, Analyzing Results, Batch Tests, Rapid Test Script Wizard.

Important Questions

  • Explain in detail about Cyclomatic Complexity. Illustrate with an example.
  • Write and explain about Top-down integration testing.
  • Discuss about Selective Retest Technique.
  • What is the need for minimizing test cases in a project? Illustrate with an example.
  • What is Six Sigma? Explain briefly.
  • List and explain various guidelines for Automated testing.
  • What is the procedure for performing thread-based integration testing? Discuss briefly.
  • Discuss Myths related to software testing and its facts.
  • Explain the life cycle of Bug.
  • How to verify high-level decision? Discuss briefly.
  • A program calculates the GCD of three numbers in the range [1, 50]. Design test cases for this program using BVC, robust testing, and worst-case testing methods.

Here, we have provided the links which contains the study materials which will help you in studying and preparing for your examinations of the B.Tech Computer Graphics. Referring to the links we’ve provided below and the links which contains the study materials in PDF Format along with the list of recommended books which we’ve provided below, you will be able to ace your examinations. We have also provided you the further details which will allow you to do well in your exams and learn more. These study materials help you understand the concepts and everything easily and creates a better space for you to work on. These study materials give you the best resources to study from.

Computer Graphics

This is a concept which works on producing images, animations and other graphical designs using a computer. Including hardware and software, this subject covers the task of producing photo-realistic images in a complicated manner.

Download Computer Graphic Study Materials

Computer Graphics pdf booksDownload
Computer Graphics notes pptDownload
Computer Graphics notes for CSEDownload
Computer Graphics Question Paper pdfDownload
Computer Graphics notes pdf for CSEDownload

Recommended Books

  • Donald Hearn, Pauline Baker, Computer Graphics – C Version, second edition, Pearson Education,2004.
  • F.S. Hill, Computer Graphics using OPENGL, Second edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
  • James D. Foley, Andries Van Dam, Steven K. Feiner, John F. Hughes, Computer Graphics-Principles and practice, Second Edition in C, Pearson Education, 2007.



2D PrimitivesOutput primitives – Line, Circle, and Ellipse drawing algorithms – Attributes of output primitives – Two-dimensional Geometric transformations – Two-dimensional viewing – Line, Polygon, Curve and Text clipping algorithms


3D Concepts Parallel and Perspective projections – Three-dimensional object representation – Polygons, Curved lines, Splines, Quadric Surfaces, – Visualization of data sets – 3D transformations – Viewing -Visible surface identification.


Graphics Programming Color Models – RGB, YIQ, CMY, HSV – Animations – General Computer Animation, Raster, Keyframe – Graphics programming using OPENGL – Basic graphics primitives –Drawing three-dimensional objects – Drawing three-dimensional scenes


Rendering Introduction to Shading models – Flat and Smooth shading – Adding texture to faces –Adding shadows of objects – Building a camera in a program – Creating shaded objects– Rendering texture – Drawing Shadows.


Fractals, Fractals and Self-similarity – Peano curves – Creating the image by iterated functions –Mandelbrot sets – Julia Sets – Random Fractals


Overview of Ray Tracing Intersecting rays with other primitives – Adding Surface texture – Reflections and Transparency – Boolean operations on Objects.

Important Questions

  • What are the 2D transformations? Explain them with necessary illustrations.
  • Plot the line (-4 -4) to (8, 4) using DDA.
  • Explain the hidden surfaces and line removal methods with their relative merits.
  • Give an algorithm for the generation of Bezier curves?
  •  Explain in detail about the methods of controlling the animation.
  • Describe the Creation of images by iterated functions.
  • Explain in detail the YIQ color model.
  • Explain the following:
    a) Adding texture to faces.
    b) Adding shadows of objects
  • Write about random fractals in detail.
  •  Write short notes on
    a) Ray tracing
    b) Boolean operations on Objects

Find the details on B.Tech Manufacturing Engineering References Books PDF and Recommended Authors below. We have provided the details regarding BTech Manufacturing Engineering such as the syllabus, eligibility, top colleges list of said course, references books with authors with the cost of the books.

The Bachelor of Technology(B.Tech) is a degree which is of professional engineering undergraduate degree which will be awarded once the four years of the academic course is completed in the field of engineering.


The Btech is a UG course degree which will be awarded to the student once the three or four years of study are completed at an accredited university or an accredited university level institution.

The manufacturing engineering is a methodical process which changes raw materials into finished goods.


  • Manipal Institute of Technology
  • Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad
  • Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra
  • Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)
  • SRM University, Chennai
  • National Institute of Technology (NITs)


  • Material science
  • Thermal Engineering
  • Manufacturing Technology
  • Theory of Machines
  • Manufacturing Processes
  • Training and Research Project

List of electives:

  • Basic thermodynamics and heat transfer
  • Introduction to hydraulics and pneumatics
  • Manufacturing cost estimation
  • Production and operations management
  • Material handling systems
  • Energy conservation
  • Solar energy utilization
  • Energy auditing
  • Renewable and sustainable energy


  • 10+2 pass with atleast 50% marks.
  • Needs to clear the entrance exam.
  • Only eligible candidates can go for entrance exam.
  • The ranking procedure is followed by the universities for admission purposes.

Reference books for Manufacturing Engineering Reference books pdf and recommended authors

Book TitleAuthor NameBook Cost
Manufacturing Processes: as Per the New Syllabus, B. Tech. I Year of U. P. Technical UniversityU.K. Singh and Manish DwivediRs.175
Printed Circuit Assembly Manufacturing: 21 (Manufacturing Engineering and Materials Processing) KearRs.2,374
Industrial Controls and Manufacturing (Engineering)Edward W. KamenRs.3,557
Absorbent Technology (Textile Science and Technology)P.K. Chatterjee and B.S. GuptaRs.546
Successful High-tech Product Introduction (Technology Management & Professional Development Library) Brian P. SeneseRs.6,125
Economics of Electronic Design, Manufacture and Test (Frontiers in Electronic Testing)M. Abadir and T. AmblerRs.12,048
Production and Operations Management S.P. SinghRs.268
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 4eKalpakjianRs.483
Manufacturing Technology – Vol. 2P.N. RaoRs.433
A Textbook of Manufacturing TechnologyR.K. RajputRs.702


Reference books allow a wide variety of topics relevant to be available to the student who is trying to pursue the said course. The competition for the entrance exams are really high and so for attending one, a student needs to be completely prepared. This will help students to improve problem solving capacity and practicing sessions are increased.